Jerome Bruner’s Observation of Education

In describing education as a social invention, Bruner (1966) suggested each generation of educators engages in a process of revising educational theory and realigning the resulting practice in response to changes in human understanding. Bruner reasoned (a) the need to update education arises from advances in understanding of human growth, development, and learning; (b) advances in learning theory and pedagogy; and (c) changes in society and accompanying societal expectations of educators. Bruner’s observation only partly describes the condition of K-12 education in the United States near the end of the first decade of the 21st century. Information technology is exerting strong sociocultural influences on most every aspect of life in the 21st century, except K-12 curriculum and instruction.


Bruner, J. (1966). Toward a theory of instruction. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.